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artifact criteria




This document is designed for the use of Cahuilla bands participating in the Cahuilla Inter-Tribal Repatriation Committee and by museums and other institutions subject to NAGPRA. It meets a requirement stipulated by the NPS Grant Project Agreement #06-98-GP-152.

The following information defines the means for identifying materials in collections that may meet the criteria of the NAGPRA legislation.

A. Territorial maps (see Cahuilla Tribal maps)
B. NAGPRA categories
1. Human remains & associated grave goods
    all items meet criteria for repatriation including common household, occupational, or personal belongings
  2. Unassociated grave goods
a. found together but separated after collection - all items meet criteria for repatriation including common household, occupational, or personal belongings
  b. specific grave goods made or used for that sole purpose but not found with human remains
c. cremation urns & covers
  d. clay images
  e. life size "dolls," including masks, created to represent the deceased during ceremonies (nukil mourning ceremony)
  f. burned beads & other burned objects
  g. medicine pouches (leather, hide, plant fiber)

3. Sacred & ceremonial items

a. feather skirts, capes, and wands (especially eagle and other raptor feathers)
  b. ceremonial and dance wands (paviut sticks); decorated wood, stone, or metal, often with flaked stone point attached
c. medicine & curing paraphernalia (small mortars & pestles, pigments, palettes, sucking tubes, containers & pouches, etc.)
  d. ceremonial paraphernalia (small mortars & pestles, pigments, palettes, containers & pouches, toloache bowls, baskets, tobacco etc.)
  e. smoking pipes, ceramic & stone
  f. tobacco baskets (shallow, similar to winnowing baskets; plain undecorated)
  g. hair sticks and hair ties, ornaments
  h. tortoiseshell rattles, deer & sheep hoof rattles, fetlocks, gourd rattles, flutes
  i. peon sticks and other gaming objects (basket trays, etc.)
  j. bird burials (especially raptors)
  k. paxaa hat (long pointed)
  l. crystals, unusual stones
  m. charm stones, amulets
  n. clay images (paddle shape with eyes)

4. Items of cultural patrimony (owned by a tribe, clan or lineage)

a. sacred bundles, shaman's (paxaa or net) bundle (reed woven mat containing feather skirts, capes, wands, paviut wands, and other ceremonial objects)
  b. "money" or exchange material required for ceremonies (shell beads, ceremonial sticks)
c. ceremonial house remains
  d. large net for rabbit hunts

Riverside County was separated from San Diego County on March 11, 1983. Cited in California County Boundaries, Owen C. Coy, Ph.D., Valley Publishing, Fresno, 1973. Prior to this date the area of Riverside County was part of San Diego County and old records may designate locations within the traditional use areas of the Cahuilla and Serrano as San Diego County.

Some other names and spellings used for Cahuilla and Serrano tribes and geographic locations:

Agua Caliente, Caliente, Agua Caliente Hot Springs
Agua Dulce
Andreas Canyon
Borrego Springs, Borego Springs
Cabazon, Cabezon, Cabazone
Cahuilla, Cohuilla, Coahuila, Coahuilla, Kawia, Kawea, Ka We A
Cathedral Canyon, Cathedral City
Chino Canyon
Coachella, Cochella, Cochilla, Chochilla (not Chowchilla)
Coyote Canyon
Deep Canyon
Desert Cahuilla
Desert Hot Springs
Dos Palmas
Eagle Canyon
Fig Tree John
Garnet (North Palm Springs)
Happy Point
Horse Thief Canyon
Hot Springs
Indian Portero
Indian Wells
Kawia, Kawea, Ka We A
La Quinta
Los Coyotes
Martinez, Martinez Canyon
Mission Creek Reservation
Morongo Valley
Morongo, Marongo, Moronga
Mountain Cahuilla
Murray Canyon
Painted Canyon
Palm Canyon
Palm Springs (early names Palm Valley, Agua Caliente Hot Springs)
Palm Springs Indians
Palm Valley
Pass Cahuilla
Piñon Well
Pinyon Flats
Ramona Reservation
Rock House Canyon, Rockhouse Canyon
Salton Sea
San Jacinto, Mt. San Jacinto
Seven Palms, Seven Palms Station
Tahquitz, Tahquitz Canyon, Takwish
Thousand Palms, Thousand Palm Canyon
Torres-Martinez, Torrez-Martinez, Torres, Toro, Torro, Martinez
Valerie Jean
Whitewater, White Water Station

III. Context of Provenience



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